OPTIMASI PERLAKUAN EKSPLAN PADA KULTUR ORGAN VEGETATIF TANAMAN KARET (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.) KLON PB 330

Lestari Admojo, Nur Eko Prasetyo

Abstract


Perkembangan sistem perbanyakan klonal melalui teknik kultur jaringan tanaman karet  masih terus dikaji. Embrio fase torpedo berhasil diperoleh pada tahun 2012 menggunakan eksplan petiol klon PB 330, namun persentasenya sangat rendah akibat ketidakstabilan kalus friabel yang diperoleh, dan adanya hambatan fase diferensiasi selanjutnya. Hambatan tersebut berupa tingginya tingkat kontaminasi dan intensitas browning. Serangkaian penelitian pendahuluan dilakukan dalam upaya optimasi perolehan kalus friabel yang lebih baik. Penelitian tersebut meliputi teknik sterilisasi untuk meminimalkan tingkat kontaminasi, teknik eliminasi browning, pemilihan bagian dan fase eksplan dan kombinasi zat pengatur tumbuh dalam media kultur. Rangkaian penelitian tersebut dilakukan di Laboratorium Bioteknologi, Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) dan Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Balai Penelitian Getas, sepanjang Oktober 2013 hingga Oktober 2017. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa beberapa optimasi perlakuan sumber eksplan berhasil dilakukan. Kontaminasi berhasil ditekan hingga 33% pada kultur petiol dengan perlakuan prasterilisasi perendaman eksplan dalam fungisida Dithane M-45 selama 24 jam, kemudian disterilisasi dengan NaClO 5,25% dan HgCl2 0,2%. Penurunan kontaminasi juga didukung dengan  penempatan sumber eksplan di luar area pembibitan karet. Intensitas browning berhasil ditekan hingga 7,5% dengan merendam eksplan dalam larutan asam askorbat steril selama 30 menit sebelum tanam. Penurunan intensitas browning diperoleh dengan pemilihan fase eksplan yang tepat (pertengahan flush) dan minimal pelukaan pada eksplan. Penambahan auksin ganda NAA 0,1 ppm+2,4-D 1 ppm ke dalam media MS modifikasi dan menempatkan sumber eksplan di bawah kondisi ternaung berhasil meningkatkan persentase kalus friabel hingga 60%. Protokol tersebut perlu terus dioptimasi untuk mengetahui respon diferensiasi selanjutnya.


Keywords


klon karet, Hevea brasiliensis, PB 330, induksi kalus, kultur jaringan

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22302/ppk.wp.v37i2.581

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