DAMPAK KEKERINGAN TERHADAP PROSES FISIOLOGIS, PERTUMBUHAN, DAN HASIL TANAMAN KARET (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22302/ppk.wp.v39i1.664

Keywords:

air, El-Nino, hujan, Hevea brasiliensis, kekeringan

Abstract

Indonesia adalah produsen karet terbesar kedua di dunia dengan luas areal penanaman mencapai 3,66 juta ha dan produksi sebesar 3,68 juta ton karet kering pada tahun 2017.  Produktivitas perkebunan karet di Indonesia tergolong belum optimal. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah curah hujan yang rendah pada musim kemarau dan fenomena El-Nino yang menyebabkan kekeringan. Efek kekeringan adalah terjadinya defisit air pada tanaman, sehingga tekanan turgor menurun dan memicu ketidaknormalan fungsi organ tanaman. Parameter fisiologis tanaman yang dipengaruhi oleh kekeringan misalnya tekanan osmotik dan turgor, konduktansi stomata, fotosintesa, transpirasi, respirasi, dan aktivitas antioksidan. Efek kekeringan yang dominan pada proses fisiologis tanaman adalah perubahan konduktansi stomata. Menutupnya stomata ini dipicu oleh hormon asam absisat (ABA) yang diproduksi di akar dan dibawa ke daun sebagai informer stomata ketika terjadi cekaman kekeringan. Konduktansi stomata juga sangat mempengaruhi besarnya fotorespirasi. Selain itu penutupan stomata juga mengakibatkan penurunan asimilasi CO2, sehingga dalam paparan cahaya yang berlebihan, over reduksi pada pusat reaksi fotosintesa PSII terjadi dan reactive oxygen species (ROS) misalnya superoksida, hidrogen peroksida, hidroksil radikal, dan oksigen singlet terbentuk. Tanaman yang toleran kekeringan beradaptasi terhadap kondisi cekaman kekeringan secara fisiologis dengan beberapa mekanisme, diantaranya adalah melalui peningkatan produksi hormon ABA, penutupan stomata, osmoregulasi, dan produksi antioksidan. Beberapa klon karet yang relatif toleran terhadap cekaman kekeringan adalah klon RRIM 600 dan GT1. Pada akhirnya, kekeringan yang terjadi akan menghambat pertumbuhan dan menurunkan hasil tanaman.

Author Biographies

Andi Nur Cahyo, Sembawa Research Centre, Indonesian Rubber Research Institute

Agronomy

Rudi Hari Murti, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Breeding

Eka Tarwaca Susila Putra, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Faculty of Agriculture, Agronomy

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2020-06-01