PENTINGNYA APLIKASI MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION DALAM SELEKSI KLON KARET TOLERAN KEKERINGAN

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22302/ppk.wp.v42i2.939

Keywords:

antioksidan, gen, Hevea brasiliensis, lokus sifat kuantitatif, spesises oksigen reaktif

Abstract

Seleksi klon karet toleran kekeringan sangat mendesak untuk dilakukan karena pada masa yang akan datang diperkirakan kejadian fenomena kekeringan sebagai dampak pemanasan global akan lebih sering terjadi. Untuk melaksanakan hal ini, terdapat satu masalah, yaitu kegiatan pemuliaan tanaman karet dengan metode yang konvensional membutuhkan waktu sekitar 35 hingga 40 tahun karena tanaman karet adalah tanaman tahunan. Salah satu solusi untuk mengatasi masalah ini adalah dengan memanfaatkan metode Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS). MAS adalah metode seleksi tanaman yang memanfaatkan marka DNA yang bertautan dengan lokus target sebagai alat untuk menduga fenotipe tanaman yang diinginkan oleh pemulia tanaman. Untuk melaksanakan metode ini diperlukan penentuan QTL dan menganalisis gen-gen dalam QTL yang terasosiasi dengan parameter-parameter toleransi kekeringan pada tanaman karet, misalnya kandungan ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), aktifitas enzim SOD (Superoksida Dismutase), POD (Peroksidase), CAT (Catalase), kandungan asam absisat (ABA), asam askorbat, tekanan turgor sel, kandungan prolin, laju transpirasi, bukaan stomata, electrolyte leakage, tekanan osmosis sel daun, kadar air daun relatif, dan DFI (Drought Factor Index). Apabila marker yang diperlukan dalam metode MAS sudah selesai diidentifikasi dan divalidasi, diharapkan metode MAS ini dapat diadopsi untuk memangkas durasi waktu pemuliaan tanaman karet konvensional yang memerlukan waktu antara 35-40 tahun menjadi kurang dari satu tahun. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengulas parameter fisiologis tanaman yang terasosiasi dengan sifat toleransi kekeringan serta pentingnya metode MAS dalam seleksi klon karet toleran kekeringan.

Author Biography

Andi Nur Cahyo, Sembawa Research Centre, Indonesian Rubber Research Institute

Agronomy

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2023-12-13